Acute Renal Failure – symptoms, causes and treatment
Acute renal failure is a term that refers to the condition when a person’s kidneys are damaged suddenly, so it can not function. Acute renal failure occurs when the kidneys suddenly cannot filter the chemical waste from blood which can trigger the accumulation of the waste.
Usually, acute renal failure occurs as a complication of other serious diseases, and is generally suffered by parents or intensive care patients in hospitals. The kidneys can experience the condition of acute renal failure rapidly, in just a few hours. If not handled immediately, acute renal failure could harm the life of the sufferer.
Symptoms of acute renal failure
Some of the common symptoms of acute renal failure are:
- Reduced urine production.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Decreased appetite.
- The smell of breath becomes unsavory.
- High blood pressure.
- Easy to get tired.
- Buildup of fluid in the body (edema), which can cause swelling in the limbs or legs.
- Decreased consciousness.
- Pain in the back, under the ribs (flank pain).
In the early phases, acute renal failure usually does not exhibit any symptoms. However, this disease can deteriorate rapidly and suddenly sufferers experience some of the above symptoms.
Causes of acute renal failure
Acute renal failure can occur due to decreased blood flow to the kidneys, such as:
- Low blood Volume due to bleeding, vomiting and excessive diarrhea resulting in severe dehydration, burns.
- The amount of blood that is pumped in the heart under normal due to anaphylactic shock, hepatic failure, heart failure or sepsis.
Then acute renal failure can also occur due to injury to the kidneys themselves as a result:
- Certain diseases, e.g. glomerulonephritis, uremic hemolytic syndrome, vasculitis, and scleroderma.
- Blood clots in veins and kidney arteries.
- Drugs, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and antibiotics aminogcosides.
- The contrast fluid used when checking the X-rays or CT scans.
- Other toxins, such as alcohol or heavy metals
In addition, acute renal failure can be caused by the treatment of the urinary tract, so that the waste from the kidneys can not be disposed of through urine. This flow of urine can be caused by:
- Enlarged prostate
- Kidney stones.
- Pelvic tumor area, an example of bladder or ovarian tumors.
Risk factors for acute renal failure
There are several factors that can increase the risk of a person to be exposed to acute renal failure, namely:
- It suffers from diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and liver disease.
- Suffering from previous kidney disease, such as chronic renal failure.
- Suffering from peripheral artery disease.
- Aged 65 years or older.
- Undergoing treatment in intensive space.
Diagnosis of acute renal failure
To diagnose acute renal failure, the doctor will do the following:
- Blood tests.
- The urine test and urine volume measurement are out.
- Kidney biopsy
Usually, adult patients can be inferred by acute renal failure if the results of diagnosis show that:
- The content of creatinine in the blood above normal and continues to increase.
- In addition to creatinine, rapid blood ureum increase also occurs in acute renal failure.
- The Volume of urine discarded is reduced.
Scanning tests such as kidney ULTRASOUND or CT scans can be used to find the cause of acute renal failure, such as a blockage in the urinary system. Examination by taking part of the kidney tissue as a sample to be examined under a microscope (biopsy), it is sometimes necessary to determine the cause of acute renal failure.
Treatment of acute renal failure
Acute renal failure, which is still relatively mild, can be healed through outpatient care. In contrast, patients with severely severe renal insufficiency should undergo hospitalization. The duration of treatment of each patient depends on the cause of acute renal failure and the time span of renal recovery.
If you are able to undergo outpatient care, then the doctor will advise patients with acute renal failure to:
- Increase consumption of water to prevent dehydration.
- Stop medications that can trigger or induce acute renal failure.
- Treating infections underlying the occurrence of acute renal failure when present.
- Monitor creatinine and electrolyte levels to see healing.
- Consult a urologist or kidney specialist if the cause of acute renal failure is unclear, or if there is a more serious cause.
Patients with acute renal failure will be asked to undergo hospitalization if experiencing the following conditions:
- Diseases that cause acute renal failure require immediate treatment.
- Risk of urinary tract blockage.
- The patient’s condition worsened.
- There are complications.
In the case of severe acute renal failure, the patient will need a blood wash. Blood wash is done in acute renal failure only while until renal function is recovered, unless the damage that occurs in the kidneys is permanent. Some of the conditions in acute renal failure requiring treatment with blood wash include hyperkalemia, decreased consciousness, and perarditis.
Complications of acute renal failure
Some of the complications that can occur due to acute renal failure are:
- Metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis causes dizziness, nausea and vomiting, and tightness.
- Permanent kidney damage. Acute renal failure of complication to chronic renal failure requires permanent blood clearance or renal transcillation.
- Hyperkalemia or high levels of potassium in the blood can lead to weakened muscles, paralysis, and arrhythmias.
- Pulmonary Edema. Pulmonary Edema occurs when fluid buildup occurs in the lungs.
- Inflammation of the perardium, which is the heart-wrapping membrane, will cause chest pain complaints.
- Death is more risky to patients who already have previous kidney disease.
Prevention of acute renal failure
All people who are at risk of acute renal failure should be monitored when they are sick or start a new treatment. These people are advised to undergo a blood test and check the volume of urine on a regular basis.
Follow the usage instructions listed on the packaging label when consuming a free drug (e.g. ibuprofen) and the doctor’s advice to keep the body from causing acute renal failure.