Defecation bleeding, is a condition when there is blood in the stool. This condition is a symptom of bleeding in the digestive tract. Defecation bleeding can result in serious medical conditions and be fatal. Therefore, it is important to immediately see a doctor if there is visible blood in the stool.
Bloody Causes and Symptoms Defecation
Hematochezia is caused by bleeding in the lower digestive tract, especially in the large intestine. Some conditions that can cause bleeding in the lower digestive tract are:
- Diverticulitis is inflammation or infection in the diverticula (small abnormal pockets that form in the digestive tract).
- Inflammatory bowel. Inflammatory bowel is an inflammatory bowel condition. Intestinal inflammation can also refer to two disorders of the digestive tract, namely Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
- Polyps are abnormal growths that are stemmed and are small in size, less than 1.5 cm long.
- Benign tumor. Benign tumors that grow in the large intestine and rectum can cause bleeding.
- Colon cancer. Colon cancer is cancer that grows in the colon (large intestine).
- Fissura ani. Anal fissures are open sores on the anal canal or rectum.
- Hemorrhoids or hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are dilation of blood vessels in the anal area at risk of bleeding.
In patients with hematochezia, blood that comes out with feces will look red. This is because bleeding occurs in an area not far from the rectum, so the blood comes out fresh. Hematochezia is sometimes accompanied by diarrhea, fever, changes in frequency defecation, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Besides being able to come out with feces, blood can also drip from the anus.
Immediately contact a doctor if hematochezia is accompanied by symptoms of shock, in the form of:
- Small amount of urine
- Passed out
- Blurred vision
- Pale and cold skin
- Hard to breathe.
Melena is caused by bleeding in the upper digestive tract. Conditions that can cause upper gastrointestinal bleeding, including:
- Ruptured esophageal varices. Esophageal varices are dilation of veins in the area of the esophagus (esophagus).
- Gastritis is inflammation of the protective lining of the stomach.
- Gastric ulcer. Gastric ulcer is a wound that forms on the inner surface of the wall
- Stomach cancer. Gastric cancer is a condition characterized by the growth of cancer cells in the stomach wall.
- Mallory-Weiss syndrome. This condition is characterized by tears in the tissue in the esophagus area bordering the stomach.
Symptoms of melena are feces that are dark like asphalt, and soft and sticky textured. Dark stools are caused by mixing blood with stomach acids, enzymes, or bacteria in the large intestine, before going out with the stool. Melena can be accompanied by vomiting of blood, the body feels tired, dizzy and fainted.
Diagnosis Defecation Bloody
Doctors can diagnose bowel movements by looking directly at the patient’s stool or through digital rectal examination. The doctor will also ensure the patient’s condition is stable by checking vital signs, namely the frequency of breathing, pulse, body temperature, and blood pressure. To ascertain the cause of the bloody chapter, the doctor will carry out further tests in the form of:
- Endoscopy is the act of inserting an elastic tube with a camera (endoscope) into the patient’s body. Depending on the part of the body to be examined, the doctor can insert an endoscope through the mouth (gastroscopy), or through the rectum (colonoscopy). The doctor can also take a small sample of tissue (biopsy) to be examined in the laboratory, when doing endoscopy. In addition to using a hose-shaped device, endoscopy can be done by swallowing a capsule containing a small camera. The camera will take a picture of the digestive tract, then send the image to a recorder that is outside the body.
- X-ray with barium contrast. The doctor will ask the patient to drink contrast fluid or dye made from barium. Barium will help the doctor to see the digestive tract more clearly in X-rays.
- Angiography is an X-ray examination that is preceded by injection of contrast fluid into a vein. The contrast fluid will help the doctor see more clearly the blood vessels that are suspected of bleeding.
- Radionuclear examination. Radionuclear examination is done by injecting radioactive fluid into a vein, then the doctor will monitor the patient’s blood flow through a special camera.
- Laparotomy is a surgical procedure of the abdominal wall, in order to see the source of bleeding, directly from the stomach.
Treatment Defecation Bloody
Treatment defecation depends on the amount of blood that comes out and the underlying cause. Treatment is aimed at overcoming blood deficiency or anemia, stopping bleeding, and preventing bleeding from reoccurring.
On moderate to severe scale bleeding, hematochezia can cause low blood pressure, dizziness, to shock. Patients with these symptoms should be immediately given a replacement fluid through infusion and blood transfusion.
Then to stop the bleeding, the doctor will run an endoscope. Besides being used to determine the cause and location of bleeding, endoscopy can also be used to treat bleeding through the following methods:
- This procedure uses an electric current to burn tissue or blood vessels that cause bleeding.
- Band ligation. This procedure is performed by binding to swollen hemorrhoids or esophageal varices. This action will inhibit blood flow which causes bleeding.
- Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection. In this procedure, the doctor will inject a special substance, namely cyanoacrylate, in the area that is bleeding. Cyanoacrylate is a synthetic adhesive that can stop bleeding.
Apart from endoscopy, the surgeon can perform surgery to stop the bleeding directly. There is also an embolization technique, which involves inserting special material into a blood vessel through a catheter to stop bleeding.
After defecation bleeding is resolved, the doctor will treat the underlying cause so that defecation bleeding does not reoccur. Some ways that can be done are:
- Diet pattern. The doctor will recommend the consumption of fibrous foods, such as fruits and vegetables. If necessary, the doctor will provide fibrous supplements to soften the stool.
- Provision of medicines, such as:
– Drug for reducing stomach acid production
– Chemotherapy drugs
– Immunosuppressive drugs
– TNF inhibitors (tumor necrosis factor)
– Beta block.
- Medical treatment. Examples are colostomy to treat colon cancer, and radiotherapy to treat stomach cancer.
Stages of treatment defecation bleed involve medical procedures to administering drugs that require no small cost. Therefore, it does not hurt to have health insurance from now on so that cost constraints can be overcome.
Blood Prevention Defecation
Following are the efforts that you can do to prevent the occurrence of defecation bleeding:
- Eat healthy and nutritionally balanced foods
- Exercise regularly
- Maintain ideal body weight
- Quit smoking
- Routinely check blood pressure and cholesterol
- Keep the anal area dry
- Clean the rectum with warm water and mild soap
- Drink lots of water
- Avoid pushing too hard when defecating
- Do not delay BAB when it is felt
- Don’t sit for too long on a hard surface.
If defecation bleeding that you experience is quite severe, you should immediately consult a doctor to get the right treatment.