Hallucinations – Symptoms, Causes, Prevention and Treatment
Hallucinations are impaired perceptions that cause a person to see, hear, or smell something that is not actually there. Hallucinations can be caused by mental disorders, certain diseases, or side effects of drugs.
Hallucinations can also be accompanied by delusions, which is a belief in something that does not exist or does not conform to the actual state. For example, one feels it has power and is very close to famous people, when in fact it is not. Hallucinations accompanied by delusions are usually experienced by psychosis and schizophrenia patients.
Symptoms of hallucinations
Symptoms of hallucinations can be distinguished by type, namely:
- Vision Hallucinations
Vision hallucinations will see something that does not exist. Objects viewed can be human, object, or light.
- Hearing hallucinations
Hearing hallucinations will hear the actual sound, command, or threat.
- Hallucinations of smell
The smell of the smell hallucination will smell fragrant or odor that is not tasty, but the odor is actually not there.
- Hallucination Tasting
These types of hallucinations will taste strange flavors, such as the flavor of metal, on the food or drink he consumed, but the flavor is actually not there.
- Touch hallucinations
People feel as if there is someone who feels or touches them, or feels like there is an animal crawling around his skin, when there is actually no.
When to go to a doctor
Consult a physician when you are experiencing the symptoms of hallucinations mentioned above, especially when it occurs frequently and until it interferes with daily activities.
Immediately seek medical help when hallucinations to encourage you to take dangerous actions, both for yourself and for others.
Causes of hallucinations
Causes of hallucinations vary greatly, ranging from mental disorders to physical ailments. In addition, hallucinations can also occur due to side effects of medications used to treat depression, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease.
Hallucinations can be caused by a number of mental disorders below:
- Bipolar disorder
- Depression with psychotic disorders
- Delirium or dementia
- Borderline personality disorder
- Post-Traumatic stress disorder
Some of the following types of diseases can cause hallucinations:
- High fever (especially in children and elderly)
- Parkinson’s disease
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Brain tumors
- Charles Bonnet syndrome
- Other conditions
Hallucinations can also be caused by a number of the following conditions:
- Alcohol abuse and NAPZA
- Sleep disorders
- Head injuries
Diagnosis of hallucinations
The doctor will ask for complaints and history of the patient’s illness, treatment, and family history, and conduct a physical examination. After that, the doctor will perform a supporting examination to determine the cause of hallucinations, such as:
- Blood and urine screening, to see possible infections as well as alcohol and NAPZA abuse.
- EEG (Electroencephalgram), which is an examination of the electrical activity of the brain to see whether hallucinations are caused by epilepsy.
- CT Scan and MRI scans, to detect strokes as well as possible injuries or tumors in the brain.
Treatment hallucinations depends on the cause. The doctor will prescribe medication when hallucinations are caused by mental disorders, epilepsy, or migraines. However, on hallucinations caused by brain tumors, the doctor will perform surgical or radiation procedures.
The doctor will also suggest cognitive behavioral therapy, especially in hallucinatory patients caused by mental disorders. This therapy can help the patient to confront fear or paranoid.
Hallucinations can be prevented by conducting routine checks when you experience mental disorders or health disorders that may cause hallucinations.
In addition, to prevent hallucinations, you are also encouraged to:
- Manage stress Well, for example by doing relaxation techniques.
- Avoiding the use of NAPZA.
- Restricting consumption of alcoholic beverages.
- Enough sleep.