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Pharyngitis is inflammation of the throat or pharynx. This condition is also known as sore throat, which is characterized by sore throat, itching, and difficulty swallowing.

Pharyngitis is generally caused by viral infections. Some of the types of viruses that can cause pharyngitis are influenza, rhinovirus, and Epstein-Barr. Although more often caused by viral infections, the Streptococcus bacterial infection can also cause pharyngitis.

Viruses and bacteria cause pharyngitis is very easy to spread by air, such as through the saliva of the sufferers are inhalation.

Symptoms of Pharyngitis

Pharyngitis usually creates a new symptom of about 2-5 days after the sufferer is infected. Some symptoms that can arise when a person suffers from pharyngitis, among others:

  • Pain or sore throat.
  • Itching on the throat.
  • Hard to swallow.
  • Fever.
  • Headaches.
  • It’s a sore.
  • Nausea vomiting.
  • Swelling in the front neck.

In addition, other symptoms that can arise are the sound of raucous and cough. If the infection extends to the tonsils or tonic can occur inflammation and swelling of the tonsils.

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When to go to a doctor

Consult a doctor if you experience symptoms of pharyngitis mentioned above especially if symptoms do not improve in 1 week, or accompanied by difficulty swallowing, difficulty breathing, rash in the skin, until the difficulty opening the mouth.

People who have a history of sinusitis, allergies, or diseases of the stomach acid, are more risky to experience pharyngitis. Therefore, if you suffer from one of them, consult a doctor periodically to control the health condition and prevent pharyngitis.

Causes of Pharyngitis

Pharyngitis or sore throat is most often caused by viral infections. This type of virus can be varied, but generally derived from influenza viruses, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, and Epstein-Barr.

Pharyngitis can also be caused by the spread of infections from other diseases, such as colds, flu, pertussis, measles, smallpox, and mononucleosis.

In some cases, pharyngitis can also be caused by bacterial infections. These bacteria usually come from Streptococcus A. Although rare, other bacteria such as Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatic, and Corynebacterium diphtheriae, may also cause pharyngitis.

Although this condition rarely occurs Candida yeast infection can also cause pharyngitis.

There are several factors that can increase the risk of a person experiencing pharyngitis, among others:

  • Children aged 3-15 years old.
  • Often exposed to cigarette smoke or pollution.
  • It has an allergic history, such as cold allergies, dust allergies, or animal feathers.
  • Has a history of sinusitis.
  • Often in dry rooms, such as AIR-conditioned rooms.
  • It has a contact history with people who are experiencing pharyngitis, including living with people who are experiencing sore throat and working in hospitals.
  • Often doing activities that cause strain in the throat muscles, for example because of talk or screaming too hard.
  • It has a weak immune system.
  • Suffering from GERD (gastroesofageal reflux disease) or gastric acid disease.

Pharyngitis Diagnosis

To diagnose pharyngitis, the doctor will do a question and answer about the complaints and symptoms of the patient, as well as tracing the patient’s health history.

Furthermore, the doctor will conduct a thorough physical examination, including examining the patient’s ear, nose, mouth, and throat. A throat test is performed to see swelling and redness in the throat.

If needed, the doctor will ask the patient to perform a series of supporting examinations to ensure the cause of infection. This supporting examination includes:

  • Throat swabs and bacterial cultures

The throat swab is done by taking samples of the throat for subsequent cultures to detect the presence of bacteria in the throat.

  • Blood test

Blood tests are conducted by taking blood samples to detect any infections.

Pharyngitis Treatment

The treatment of pharyngitis aims to relieve complaints and symptoms, overcome the infection of the cause of pharyngitis, and prevent complications.

Two measures that can be done are self-handling and Drug Administration. Here’s an explanation:


Self-handling measures that can be done to overcome pharyngitis are:

  • Much rest until the condition feels better.
  • Don’t speak too much especially when the sound is hoarsenant.
  • Drink sufficient amount of water to avoid dehydration.
  • Use a humidifier if the indoor air feels dry.
  • Consumption of comfortable foods in the throat, such as warm broth soup.
  • Gargle with warm brine to relieve sore throat.
  • Avoid exposure to cigarette smoke and pollution

Medication delivery

If the treatment of pharyngitis independently does not make the condition to improve within a few days, maximum 1 of the week, a doctor’s examination is required. Doctors prescribe several types of medicines, such as:

  • Antibiotics

Antibiotics are a cure for bacterial infections. This medication will be administered if the pharyngitis is caused by a bacterial infection. The type of antibiotic selected is usually penicillin and amoxicillin. Always follow the recommendations and rules of use of medications provided by the doctor. Do not discontinue using the drug arbitrarily.

  • Benzocaine

Benzocaine will be administered by a physician to overcome sore throat and swallowing difficulties that often occur in pharyngitis. This ingredient is often present in mouthwash or throats (lozenges).

  • Paracetamol or ibuprofen

Paracetamol and ibuprofen are Medicine Fever and Pain medicine. Medications are given to relieve pain and decrease fever, which can occur during pharyngitis.

Hospital treatment by providing infusion fluid patients can also be the option of handling pharyngitis when the patient is very difficult to swallow, thus potentially deficient in nutrients.

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Complications of pharyngitis

Pharyngitis generally does not cause complications. But when conditions continue to be left without treatment, infections can spread and cause a number of complications, such as:

  • Ear infections.
  • Inflammation of the sinus (sinusitis).
  • Rheumatic fever, a serious disorder that can damage the heart valve.
  • Glomerulonephritis kidney disorder.
  • Arising abscess (buildup of pus) in the throat.

Prevention of Pharyngitis

Prevention of Pharyngitis is done by avoiding the cause and trigger. You can do this by applying a clean and healthy lifestyle, such as:

  • Diligently wash your hands with soap and flowing water, especially before eating, after to the toilet, and after coughing or sneezing.
  • Do not share cutlery and drinking utensils or toiletries with patients with pharyngitis.
  • Always shut the mouth and nose by hand or tissue when coughing.
  • Do not smoke and avoid exposure to cigarette smoke and pollution.
  • Wash the toys of children who suffer from pharyngitis (especially the usual toys he put into the mouth) with a clean.
  • Pharyngitis patients should not enter the school or office for the first 1-2 days of illness to prevent transmission.

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